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Traditional Baking, Inc.; clients are the principals, the attorney is an agent; under law of agency, principal is bound by agent's deeds, except attorney misconduct outside the scope of employment. 8(a)(2) short and plain statement of the claim showing that pleader is entitled to relief, give the defendant fair notice of claim and grounds upon which it rests. General Motors Corp.; sanctionable spoliation is destruction or material alteration of evidence or failure to preserve property for another's use as evidence in pending or reasonably foreseeable litigation; manufacturer opportunity to inspect Harnden v. Darue Engineering & Manufacturing; federal forum for federal tax litigation sufficiently substantial for exercise of federal question jurisdiction; federal title law; division of labor between state and federal courts United Oil Co. Parts Associates, Inc.; may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, relevant to claim or defense; other lawsuits regarding similar products relevant to a defendant's failure to warn; indemnify; indemnity agreement. UBS Warburg LLC; corporate counsel has duty to communicate discovery obligations so all relevant information is discovered, retained, and produced; once duty to preserve attaches, identify all sources of discoverable information. Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause. Seelig, Inc., Barriers to commercial traffic between states, direct or indirect, violate the Commerce Clause when purpose and effect of such barriers is to suppress or mitigate the consequences of competition between states. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority; Laws that favor government operations, but that treat all private businesses equally, do not violate the Commerce Clause; dormant commerce clause. Police dog; drug dog sniff luggage; K-9 dog; investigative detention; when officer's observations lead him reasonably to believe that luggage contains narcotics, officer may detain luggage briefly to investigate circumstances that aroused his suspicion. when police investigation is no longer general inquiry into unsolved crime but focuses on particular suspect in police custody, must allow opportunity to consult with lawyer or warn of absolute constitutional right to remain silent. These grounds are extreme such ascorruption, fraud, partiality, misconduct, etc. William and Martha Messerly; as-is clause may defeat grant of rescission for mutual mistake relating to a basic assumption that materially affects the parties' agreed performance.

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Disbar for alcohol abuse; attorney substance abuse; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics and professional responsibility; CLE; Continuing Legal Education. Jaffari; a limited liability company is bound by the operating agreement signed by some members and that defines the LLC's governance and operation, even if the LLC itself did not sign. Geist; A manager of an LLC has the apparent authority to bind the LLC when he executes in its name an instrument for carrying on, in the usual way, its business or affairs. peremptory challenge; batson challenge; strike in camera.

Professional ethics; ethics lawyer; lawyer ethics; legal ethics issues; attorney substance abuse and drug addiction; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; Mandatory Continuing Legal Education. The admission at trial of hearsay statements does not violate confrontation clause as long as declarant is unavailable and statements are sufficiently reliable, based either on firmly rooted hearsay exception or other showings of trustworthiness.

Without red flags, directors have no reason to suspect wrongdoing; does stockholder complaint create a reasonable doubt that board of directors could have properly exercised its independent and disinterested business judgment in responding. P.; Under section 36(b) of the Investment Company Act, a financial adviser has a fiduciary duty and owes an obligation of candor in negotiation, as well as honesty in performance, but not for negotiating own salary. Jordan; The proper remedy for a freeze-out is to restore the minority shareholder as nearly as possible to the position she would have been in had there been no wrongdoing; close corporation; dividend; injunction. Antinora; The general rule of partnership law is that, in the absence of an agreement, the law presumes that partners and joint adventurers intended to participate equally in the profits and losses of the common enterprise. Superior Court; In forming a partnership, the partners obligate themselves to share the risks and benefits and carry out the enterprise with the highest good faith toward each other; fiduciary. 55 Perry Co; Partnership law provides that, subject to any contrary agreement between the partners, no person may become a member of the partnership without the consent of the other partners. Dreifuerst; Unless otherwise agreed, partners who have not wrongfully dissolved the partnership have a right to wind up the partnership and force a sale of the partnership assets; partnership at will. Cuban; Insider trading liability under the misappropriation theory is premised on the undisclosed use of confidential information for personal benefit, in breach of a duty not to do so. Procedural rules usually do not apply retroactively. absent a showing of cause and prejudice attendant to a state procedural waiver, a federal habeas corpus review of a waived objection to the admission of a confession at trial is barred. Qualified immunity does not apply to deprivation of constitutional rights; coercive police interrogation resulting in statements not used at trial violates Constitution only if interrogator's conduct shocks the conscience. A criminal defendant's initial appearance before a judicial officer triggers the attachment of the Sixth Amendment right to counsel. Burden of persuasion; burden of production; insanity; mens rea; voluntary. Due process does not require the prosecution to disprove all affirmative defenses that may be available to defendant, so long as it has proven guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Deliberate first- degree murder; intent; second-degree murder.

Business judgment rule; good faith; directors owe corporation and shareholders duty of good faith; business judgment rule does not save directors from liability for the conscious disregard of the consequences of corporate action. AFSCME Employees Pension Plan; Bylaws may be unilaterally adopted by shareholders when they appropriately relate to corporate processes rather than substantive decisions or Board's fiduciary duties. Stephens; misrepresentation material if substantial likelihood disclosure of omitted fact would have been viewed by reasonable investor as having significantly altered total mix of information made available; proxy. Shareholder Derivative Litig; Plaintiff must show directors knew not discharging fiduciary obligations or directors demonstrated conscious disregard for responsibilities; business-judgment rule; exculpatory clause; gross negligence. Stephens; Shareholder ratification applies only to circumstances where fully informed shareholder vote approves director action that does not legally require shareholder approval in order to become legally effective. Cullman; director is "interested" when he derives benefit from transaction that is not shared with other shareholders but lacks "independence" when his decision about transaction controlled directly or indirectly by another; disinterested. Shareholders Litig; Pre-suit demand excused only if shown that a majority of the members of board of directors is either personally interested, or is so dominated by or beholden to an interested director that discretion sterilized. Sidhu; Gross negligence is conduct that constitutes reckless indifference, or actions that are without the bounds of reason, and constitutes a breach of the duty of care; bad faith; exculpatory clause. Horn; The question of whether director is required to offer business opportunity to corporation before taking advantage of it is determined according to relationship between particular director and corporation; accounting; constructive trust. Consolidated Shareholder Litig; A director who uses inside knowledge to enrich employees while avoiding shareholder-imposed requirements is not acting loyally and in good faith as a fiduciary; business-judgment rule. Inter-Tel (Delaware), Inc; directors' defensive actions; burden is on directors to identify legitimate corporate purpose, and show that actions reasonable relation to purpose did not preclude shareholders from exercising right to vote. Nasser; Implied authority is agent reasonably believes he has, shown by evidence of acquiescence of the principal; actual authority; apparent agency; apparent agent; apparent authority; express agency; implied agency. Prometheus Development Company, Inc; A partnership agreement provision that allows an interested partner to count its votes is manifestly unreasonable under California corporations law; limited partner; limited partnership; ratification. Derivative Litigation; the law presumes directors act on an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest beliefof best interests of company; business judgment rule; derivative action; duty of good faith; fiduciary duty. new constitutional rules of criminal procedure will not be applicable to those cases that have become final before the new rules are announced. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine aplies to Fourth amendment, not Fifth Amendment; although Miranda requires the suppression of an un-warned admission, the admissibility of any subsequent statement turns on whether it was made voluntarily. Beard; capital defendant and family say no mitigating evidence, but defense lawyer must make reasonable efforts to obtain and review prosecution evidence of aggravation at sentencing phase of trial; death penalty. United States; repeated requests to commit a crime and pleas for sympathy establish entrapment; if defendant's criminal conduct arises from the inducement of law enforcement officers, not the intention of the defendant. Heckenkamp; absent clear warnings, connecting a personal computer to a computer network does not relinquish an otherwise objectively reasonable expectation of privacy; warrantless search. Villarreal; individuals have a reasonable expectation that their letters and other sealed containers will not be opened by government agents without a warrant when they are surrendered to a carrier. Spears; Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1996 creates exception to civil liability for aural interception during business use of a telephone extension; scope of exception limited to the business purpose. Missouri; the constitution prohibits the use of visible shackles during the penalty phase of a criminal trial unless the use is justified by an essential state interest specific to the defendant on trial. Washington; out-of-court statements are inadmissible into evidence if defendant has no opportunity to cross-examine speaker, unless witness is unavailable and defendant has prior opportunity to cross-examine the declarant; hearsay. Gant; Police may search vehicle incident to recent occupant's arrest only if arrestee is within reaching distance of passenger compartment at time search or reasonable to believe vehicle contains evidence offense of arrest; stare decisis. Redding; school search permissible if scope of measures adopted is reasonably related to objectives of search and not excessively intrusive; in loco parentis; qualified immunity. Louisiana; A criminal defendant's consent to police-initiated interrogation cannot be presumed involuntary simply because the court previously appointed a lawyer to represent him; preliminary hearing. United States; Although acquittals may preclude retrial on counts on which the same jury hangs, the consideration of hung counts has no place in the issue preclusion analysis for double jeopardy purposes; hung jury. Gant; Police may search vehicle incident to recent occupant's arrest only if arrestee is within reaching distance of passenger compartment at time of search and reasonable to believe vehicle contains evidence of offense of arrest. Michigan; exclusionary rule not apply suppress evidence obtained in violation knock-and-announce rule; exclusionary rule; fruit-of-the-poisonous-tree-doctrine; inevitable discovery rule; no-knock search warrant. Illinois; Whatever warnings suffice for Miranda's purposes will also be sufficient to safeguard the right to counsel in the context of post-indictment questioning; indict; sixth amendment. Constructive possession of controlled substance is established when the defendant is knowingly in a position or has the right to exercise dominion or control over it, and has some appreciable ability to guide its destiny. Due Process Clause requires the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt the absence of heat of passion when it is at issue in a homicide prosecution. One who, with full knowledge of the dangers involved, deliberately exposes a person to danger of death or bodily injury is liable for murder upon death of victim.

An employer may order a plant closing or mass layoff before the conclusion of the statutory sixty-day notice period if the closing or mass layoff is caused by business circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable. Clay Ward Agency, Inc.; assumption of personal liability by a member of an LLC is so antithetical to the purpose of a limited liability company that it must be stated in unequivocal terms. In order for media coverage to infect a trial with unfairness, a juror's preconceived notions of guilt or innocence must prevent him or her from rendering a verdict based on the evidence presented in court. Even when capital defendant family members and defendant himself say no mitigating evidence, lawyer must make reasonable efforts to obtain and review prosecution evidence of aggravation at sentencing phase of trial. Counsel's failure to obtain the defendant's express consent to a strategy of conceding guilt in a capital trial does not render counsel's assistance ineffective when it is reasonable under the circumstances. a defendant can lose his right to be present at trial if, after warning by the judge, he conducts himself in a manner so disorderly, disruptive, and disrespectful of the court that trial cannot be carried on with him in courtroom. Millard Refrigerated Services, Inc.; limitation of liability in a warehouse receipt will limit liability, unless the damage was from the the warehouse's conversion of the goods to its own use. Chase Bank, USA; Unauthorized use of a credit card is use of the card by someone without actual, implied, or apparent authority to make charges, and from which the cardholder receives no benefit. Shell Oil Co.; claim for bad faith price setting; a price in an open price contract is set in good faith if it is commercially reasonable and nondiscriminatory; disparate pricing between jobbers and dealers is not evidence of discrimination Central Washington Refrigeration, Inc. Barbee; Uniform Commercial Code; indemnity actions are governed by separate statute of limitation; implied right of indemnity; separate equitable cause of action; UCC. Certified Packaging Corp.; security interest includes the proceeds from a recovery for decreased value of collateral, and not for loss of use of the collateral; destroyed property; damaged property.

A person has a duty to avoid affirmative misrepresentations in referral letters and a duty to disclose omitted information if a fiduciary or confidential relationship exists or a pecuniary interest Racing Investment Fund 2000, LLC v. AFSCME Employees Pension Plan; bylaws may be unilaterally adopted by shareholders only when they appropriately relate to corporate processes rather than substantive decisions and do not otherwise violate the law. capital offense; death penalty; death sentence; voir dire. When Congress mandates a specific definition of a statutory term, an agency cannot interpret the meaning of the term differently under its regulations. Twombly; sufficient factual allegations required for Fed. Judicial impartiality is not a compelling enough interest to justify suppressing candidates views, government regulations that supress speech on the basis of its content must be narrowly tailored, first amendment. Nontestimonial evidence obtained as a result of a defendant s voluntary statement given without the benefit of miranda warnings need not be excluded at the defendant's trial; fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine. Crossmedia Services, Inc.; when a benefit is offered subject to stated conditions, and the offeree takes the benefit with knowledge of the terms of the offer, the taking constitutes acceptance of the terms. In-house counsel may bring a common-law action for retaliatory discharge resulting compliance with Code of Professional Responsibility provision that represents a clear and definitive statement of public policy. Sweet; plaintiff in a transactional malpractice action must show that but for the alleged malpractice, it is more likely than not that plaintiff would have obtained a more favorable result; but-for causation. In re Primus; when freedom of association is involved, the state must demonstrate a compelling subordinating interest, and that the means employed is closely drawn to avoid unnecessary abridgement of associational freedoms. Carona; the government may use deception in its investigations in order to induce suspects into making incriminating statements, even if reprensented by an attorney. CERCLA authorizes contribution for environmental cleanup costs from other responsible parties only when the party seeking contribution has been sued under CERCLA 106 or 107(a). The EPA authority under the Clean Air Act includes the power to mandate the inclusion of emissions-control designations in pre-construction permits AND the power to determine whether the designations are in accord with the provisions of the Act. Jayco, Inc.; summary judgment testimony usually form of an affidavit or sworn statement even if a court's consideration of inadmissible evidence is in error, such error is harmless it if does not affect any party's substantial rights. Eminent domain, inverse condemnation, just compensation, ripeness, taking, environmental concerns justify limitations on development, when a regulation denies all economically beneficial or productive use of property. Eminent domain, just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property for use by other private citizens pursuant to a carefully considered economic development plan intended for a public purpose are valid under the Fifth Amendment. Heller; Words and phrases in the Constitution are to be interpreted according to their normal and ordinary meanings as understood when the provision in question was adopted; second amendment. Freedom from Religion Foundation; Taxpayers have standing to bring Establishment Clause challenges to a federal expenditure only if that expenditure is made pursuant to an explicit congressional authorization; establishment clause. Raich; Medical marijuana; Prescription marijuana; THC; Congress may regulate intrastate activity if there is a rational basis for concluding that the activity may have a substantial effect on interstate commerce; necessary and proper clause. Georgia; The enforcement power in the Fourteenth Amendment gives Congress the power to create a private right of action for violations of the Amendment; Americans with Disabilities Act; sovereign immunity. CSuspicionless drug testing of public school students involved in extracurricular activities is reasonable means of furthering schools interest in preventing and deterring drug use. If law enforcement officers have reason to believe individual giving consent to search has authority over premises to be searched, then entry will be validated even if it is later determined that person did not have authority to consent. Indigent misdemeanor defendant is entitled to appointed counsel at criminal trial when suspended sentence of imprisonment may later be enforced upon revocation of probation. Criminal defendant does not have constitutional right to appointed counsel to assist in pursuing discretionary appeal in state court or petition for certiorari in supreme court of united states. For purposes of Miranda, interrogation occurs when police either expressly question suspect in custody or engage in any actions or dialogue that police should know is reasonably likely to elicit incriminating response from suspect. Ed Stefanko; Contract provisions requiring the issuance of an injunction are not binding on the trial court; granting or denying a preliminary injunction rests within the trial court's equitable discretion, Hall Street Associates, L. Concurrent sentence; consecutive sentence; specific performance. A guilty plea is not knowingly and intelligently made, and therefore not voluntarily made, if the defendant did not receive adequate notice of the offense to which he pleaded guilty. A capital defendant accused of an interracial crime is entitled to have prospective jurors informed of the race of the victim and questioned on the issue of racial bias. General Insurance; breach of warranty; no exception to the economic loss doctrine for damages to a defective product when an inherent defect makes the product unreasonably dangerous. In re World Com, Inc.; the duty to mitigate damages bars recovery for losses suffered by a non-breaching party that could have been avoided by reasonable effort and without the risk of substantial loss or injury. Administrative Procedures Act allows federal courts to compel agency action unlawfully withheld and unreasonably delayed only for claims involving a specific agency action—a rule, order, license, sanction, or relief—required of agency by law. EPA; he Clean Air Act only mandates that residual risk standards provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health, and the EPA is free to determine that existing technology-based standards are ample. To go forward on a claim of selective prosecution based on race, the claimant must produce evidence that similarly situated offenders of a different race could have been prosecuted but were not. For speedy trial claims, courts must apply balancing test of conduct of both prosecution and defendant, including length of delay, reason for delay, defendant's assertion of his right, and prejudice to defendant. The fifth amendment privilege against self incrimination is not violated by a requirement that a defendant provide notice of an alibi defense and disclose his alibi witnesses to the prosecution prior to trial. Government failure to assist defense by disclosing impeachment evidence of witnesses is constitutional violation if it deprived defendant of fair trial; material if suppression undermines confidence in outcome. It is not vindictive exercise of prosecutor's discretion, and therefore not violation of due process, to carry out threat to reindict defendant on more serious charges if defendant does not plead guilty to original offense charged. A voluntary and intelligent plea of guilty made by an accused person, who has been advised by competent counsel, may not be collaterally attacked. Dynex Commercial, Inc.; benefit to third party must be written in the contract; court will not create a third party beneficiary contract by implication; no implied contract for third party. Mc Nulty; Ordinarily, the conduct of an attorney is imputed to his client, since allowing a party to evade the consequences of the acts or omissions of his freely selected agent would be inconsistent with system of representative litigation. Mitsubishi Motors Corp; When a lawyer inadvertently receives materials that obviously appear to be subject to attorney-client privilege or otherwise confidential and privileged, the lawyer must immediately notify the sender. CITGO Petroleum Corp; Non-refundable retainer fees and other non-refundable provisions in attorney fee agreements will be upheld if reasonable; sophisticated client; contract is in writing; incurred expenses. UBS Warburg LLC; Once a party reasonably anticipates litigation, it must suspend its routine document retention/destruction policy and put in place a litigation hold to ensure the preservation of relevant documents; spoliation. City of New York; To prevail on a claim for denial of a fair trial due to prejudicial publicity, the plaintiff must establish (1) improper leaks; (2) in fact denied a fair trial; and (3) other remedies were not available or used to no avail. Environmental Assessment; when an agency has no ability to prevent a certain effect, the agency cannot be considered a legally relevant cause of such effect; so under NEPA, the agency need not consider these effects in its EA. United States; Mere knowledge that spills and leaks occur after the sale of a chemical product is insufficient for concluding the seller "arranged for" disposal of hazardous chemical for CERCLA liability. Preventative detention of criminal defendant does not violate substantive due process under fifth amendment nor constitute excessive bail under eighth amendment if clear and convincing evidence defendant presents threat to safety of community. S.; if a party repudiates a contract, the other party is entitled to restitution for any benefit he has conferred on the repudiating party by way of part performance or reliance. Jackson; The Federal Arbitration Act puts arbitration agreements on equal footing with other contracts, and requires courts to enforce them according to their terms; unconscionability challenges. Cendant Mobility Services Corp.; a promise that the promisor should reasonably expect to induce action or forbearance and does is binding if injustice can be avoided only by enforcement of the promise. Morell; even when there is no fraud, there may be mutual mistake; where both parties share a common false assumption about a vital fact upon which their bargain is based, the transaction may be avoided.

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